I have the above mentioned MacBook Pro. It has Intel HD 4000 1536mb, a 480gb SSD, and 8gb DDR3 1333mhz RAM running the latest version of Catalina. It has the base i5 3210m. I cannot get the game to be playable, especially on 1.14. Even with optifine, it barely manages to hit 40fps. I haven't tried on Windows 10 yet, but bedrock works fine on that OS. Thermals aren't an issue; the fans max out by the time it gets to 80C (Mac Fan Control). This is really frustrating. I wish they'd make a bedrock client for OSX already.
Your computer doesn't meet some of the minimum specifications for Minecraft, and just barely does for others. 2012 is quite old in computer standards. Time for an upgrade! I would actually recommend buying a Windows PC if you plan on playing Minecraft on it, as you could get a pretty decent mid-tier gaming laptop for less money than a new Macbook.
I have a "gaming" PC (basically thrown together parts; being an i5 3570, GTX 660, 120GB SSD + additional storage) so it's not really necessary to upgrade my laptop. I only ever play minecraft on my laptop when I go to family events. The only reason I ask about this is because my old laptop had an i5 3337U, 4gb of RAM, and intel HD 4000 with less vram and it ran the game considerably smoother. That machine was, on paper, significantly worse in terms of raw power, yet ran the game better.