I developed this minimalistic 2x2 shelter during my first long journey through a survival world. It can be deployed and dismantled in < 1 minute with a bit of practice, and likely even faster if you use hardened clay and a pick instead of wooden planks.
20 of any building block (should be both blast resistant and fast to mine, but set your own priorities)
A crafting table
1-3 wooden fences or iron bars for makeshift windows/arrowslits
PFA-Shelter was mainly conceived for the strolling adventurer but can also serve as a first-day home (if you aren't claustrophobic). The layout can be easily extended if you plan to stay longer at a location.
There is also a spacier 3x3 version that only requires 6 blocks more and has a very similar deployment procedure. As soon as I have more practice with that build I will make a video too.