Not really, I have hundreds of saved worlds created with several different Java releases that were created BEFORE I started defining Game Directories for each Major release. I have not found a way to figure out what release those worlds were created with except by going by the release date of the updates.
You can get a pretty good idea by looking at what blocks and items exist in the world around spawn (ignoring any player-made alterations); since the locations of many "decorations" (trees, ores, etc) often change from one version tot he next, even with no large-scale changes to world generation, you can also compare them to a recreated world, along with the contents of generated structure chests (for example, these are maps of the seed for my first world, which was originally created in 1.5.1; the map on the right was created in 1.6.4, which has noticeable differences when ignoring player-made alterations (most noticeably, water lakes were removed from deserts in 1.6). Also, a location where I found pink sheep had to have been created prior to 1.6 because they only exist in 1.5; likewise, dungeons did not have horse armor until 1.6, conversely, they had cocoa beans in earlier versions).
Of course, if the biomes are totally different than you can be absolutely sure that the world was not created in a given version; the largest changes occurred in 1.2 and 1.7 with smaller changes in 1.13; the locations of strongholds also changed in 1.9, 1.8 added andesite/granite/diorite, and so on.
Also, the "data version" is not accurate once you've updated the world and loaded chunks in a newer version and it will be updated to reflect the last version they were loaded in (unless you use the "optimize" feature in 1.13+ or upgrade a world from 1.1 to 1.2+ or Beta 1.2 to Berta 1.3+ only chunks which were loaded around spawn and the player will be updated but this means you must not have explored that area since). Otherwise, you can look at the creation/modified dates of the files, and for worlds created prior to 1.7(?) there will be a file named "level.dat_mcr" which will have the time the world was created (this file is also created when upgrading a pre-1.2 world to 1.2; for some reason 1.5-1.6 create this file even when you create a new world, perhaps as an indicator not to convert the world, though deleting it has no effect). For example, this is the level.dat_mcr file for my first world, both the date of the file itself as well as the last played time inside match (last played is in Unix time, which can be converted using this calculator):
Note that despite what some sources may claim the world seed (randomly generated) has no relation to the time a world was created (very old versions of Java did use the system time but not since Java 5, the oldest version that any version of Minecraft can run on):
Time of generation This is mostly theoretical. But if you were to generate a new Minecraft world, with a random seed, in a really old Java-version (e.g. Java 1.4.2), around Sun Jul 06 10492 04:47:30 GMT-0500 (Central Daylight Time), in the right millisecond it would get your seed. With Java 1.5 being released long before Minecraft existed, it is unlikely that this ever happened though. For your seed it's very obviously not true, looking at the date.
Of course, the creation time assumes that you were using the current version at the time you created the world, which I'd assume would be the case for most player's first world (the main reason to use an older version is mods and most players start out playing vanilla).