IMPORTANT NOTICE: This list does not work in 1.9 nor it's snapshots.
For a list of sound arguments that do work in 1.9, please click here.
I've noticed that lots of people like having a list of sound arguments for this command, but the only list I've found is incomplete and a bit misleading. Basically, my goal here is to give everyone a nice, complete reference list, and to clear up any/all confusion that I can regarding the /playsound command.
First off, the complete list of sound arguments for 1.8, organized into 3 groups (General Sounds, Mob Sounds, and Music):
If a sound argument has * before it, that means it would play the exact same sound(s) as the argument above it.
Now here's how you should use the command in-game: /playsound [sound] @p
All you have to do is replace [sound] with the sound argument of your choice from the list above. And obviously you can switch out @p for @a, @r, @e, or a specific player name if you want. Here's one of my favorites as an example: /playsound mob.enderdragon.growl @a
Common Issues/Misconceptions and Other Relevant Information:
Alright, here is possibly the biggest issue people are having with the /playsound command. People somehow got it into their heads that the file path name for a sound is what's placed in the [sound] part of the command - that's not the case. What is placed in the [sound] section of the command is similar to the file path name, not the same (and I'm not just talking about decimal points instead of slashes). This is the reason why I refer to them as "sound arguments" instead of "sound file names", because that's what they actually are. Here's a perfect example of what I'm talking about: game.tnt.primed - does that look at all the same as random/fuse? I don't think so. Speaking of which, Fun Fact:None of the sound files use their original names now, or even anything sensible (for example, "sounds/ambient/cave/cave1" is now "29d4dccf3353334c7aa2a49cb6fed3780a51a1ba").
This brings me to the next issue, which actually just builds on the first. Since people think the file path name is what's being used, they assume that there should be a number on the end of most sound arguments - this is not the case either. What I'm saying is that most people will try to use mob.skeleton.say1 when they should actually be using mob.skeleton.say instead. Since you can't use a number on the end, you can't specify which sound to play. Instead, using mob.skeleton.say will randomly pick a sound from all of the different mob/skeleton/say# sounds.
So now you're likely wondering: "How can I make sure it uses mob/skeleton/say1 instead of mob/skeleton/say2 or 3?"
And this is the part where I answer questions before you ask them: "You can't."
"What!? Why not?! Are you sure???"
"You can't because that isn't how the command works. As to why the command doesn't work like that, I have no idea. All I know for sure is that it isn't possible to specify a specific numbered sound argument. If you try to use a sound argument that doesn't exist, it'll lie right to your face and say that it played the sound, even though it doesn't exist to begin with. If you want to be sure that the sound argument you use will work, just copy/paste it from my list. They all work."
"How do you know that they all work?"
"Because I took a lot of time out of my day to test every last one of them in order to make sure that they all work, and to check for duplicate sounds. You're welcome."
"How the heck did you figure out what they all were anyway??"
"Well, to put it simply, I wasted more of my precious time trying to figure out what they were and after a couple hours I ended up getting a lucky break. I eventually found a file that listed the old file paths, as well as a few other things. One thing led to another and before I knew it, I stumbled onto a list of all the actual sound arguments for direct use in the /playsound command. That file was pretty messy though, and hard to find. That's why I figured I'd save everyone else the time and effort."
"How do you know that this is a complete list of sound arguments?"
"Unless the file left some of them out (which I highly doubt), this should be all of the sound arguments. But I suppose it's still possible that it could have left one out, or that I might have deleted one by mistake (which I also highly doubt)."
Now hopefully I've explained this all well enough that everybody will understand. It's been a long night for me and I'm exhausted, so I likely forgot to go over something. But then again, maybe not, I don't know. If you're still confused about something involving the /playsound command, just ask and I will try my best to help you as soon as I can, if I can. I also plan on updating this whenever it's needed, if ever (like for future versions of minecraft). Anyway, I hope this proves at least somewhat useful to people, and that it clears up any confusion that there may be, because I did this for you guys. Enjoy
+1 for a complete and updated list on sounds.json. However I believe you missed item.fireCharge.use xP (but it had an incorrect file reference and doesn't work anyway and is the same as the ghast fireball). Also there is a wiki page on sound.json (which is more detailed but also more complicated): http://minecraft.gamepedia.com/Sounds.json
Quote from 11people5»
I purposefully removed item.fireCharge.use from the list since it doesn't work (it'd be kind of misleading to include it, knowing that it won't work).
As of Minecraft 1.8.1, it is now possible to use item.fireCharge.use with the /playsound command. Although, I highly doubt that this actually makes much of a difference to anyone. Despite that, it's technically still an update nonetheless :/
Also, as one might expect, fire charges now make this sound when used by a player. So... there's that I guess.
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Oh hey, whenever I try and play a sound(The one i repeatedly keep trying is /playsound random.door_open @p) It says it played it and I receive no sound. Its really ticking me off, do any of you know what is happening?
If you're using one of the 1.9 snapshots, they completely redid the sound arguments, so these no longer work as of the 1.9 snapshots. I'm actually working on an updated version of this thread for 1.9 right now though! I'll link this thread to it once I've made it.